Commercial mushroom farming on a large scale is becoming one of the most lucrative businesses among the many other farming businesses. Its large market demand and high price always inspire farmers to produce more and more mushrooms.
We know that fungi are responsible for so many plant diseases. But it is not true, and all the fungi do not cause disease. There are many fungi that are beneficial for us. Mushroom is such a type of fungi that is fully suitable as food; it is tasty and has medicinal qualities. Actually mushroom is a kind of productive part of saprophytic fungi which are edible.
Many people mistakenly think that mushroom and naturally grown toxic fruiting bodies swamp fungi (umbrella of toads) are the same things, which grow here and there. The thing is: mushroom is a type of vegetable grown in a safe and clean environment from the seed or spawn developed through tissue culture.
The mushroom itself is a kind of tasty food, and also it increases the taste of other food when used or mixed with other food items. The taste of mushrooms is similar to meat. Most delicious Chinese types and other meals of 5-star hotel level are produced with mushrooms.
However, the mushroom is used for cooking country methods for meal items like vegetables, fry, soup, polao, biriani, noodles, shrimp, and small fish preparations. Mushrooms may be eaten as fresh, dried up, and ground powder.
Mushroom is a top-level crop when considered from a nutrition point of view, because, it contains very essential food elements, such as protein, vitamins, and minerals at a very high level. We can get 25 -35 grams of protein from every 100- gram mushroom, also 10 -15 grams of all vitamins and minerals. It also contains carbohydrates, fiber, and fat respectively 40-50 grams, and 4-6 grams.
The protein of mushrooms is of very high-quality grade and contains essential 9 amino acids. This type of protein doesn’t contain harmful fat and reduces the danger of high blood pressure, heart disease, obesity. The fats of mushrooms help in increasing the activities of calcium and phosphorus in developing bones and teeth.
Mushroom carbohydrates contain so many types of chemical elements which work to remedy complex diseases.
Vitamins and minerals create resistance power against disease in the body. Our body has a need for specific quantities of vitamins and minerals. We can meet up the required vitamin and mineral needs by eating mushrooms daily.
Mushroom is found to contain thiamin (vitamin B-1), riboflavin (vitamin B-2), niacin, etc., and minerals in sufficient quantities such as phosphorus, iron, calcium, copper, etc. Mushroom works both to prevent and cure many diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, anemia, dysentery, dropping of hair, cancer, tumor, etc due to high-quality food values.
A healthy human needs to consume every day 200-250 grams of vegetables. We usually eat 40-50 grams of vegetables except for potatoes per day, which is considering very low the total requirement. For this reason, we frequently suffer from different diseases due to deficiency of vitamins and minerals.
Mushroom is such a type of crop that does not need very high fertile soils for its production. It may be cultivated in a house in racks. It can be grown in a very short period of 7-10 days.
Mushroom cultivation is commercially very profitable. Because mushroom requires low capital and labor investments. The invested capital can be recovered within a very short period.
The family nutrition can be met side by side it is possible to benefit financially through the cultivation of mushrooms in every house.
Commercial Mushroom Farming Methods
There are many species of mushrooms cultivated in different seasons. Milky, Rishi, and Straw mushrooms may be cultivated in the summer season, while Sitake, Button, Simaji, and Inoki may be cultivated in the winter season.
The year-round mushroom is mostly cultivated all over the world. There are some differences in the cultivation methods of various types of mushrooms.
Here, we will know the cultivation methods of Wester mushroom.
1. Make A Perfect Business Plan
Commercial farms start with a perfect business plan, site selection, operational management, and finally business accounting. All these will be very systematic recording, analyzing, interpreting, and presenting financial information.
So a perfect and well-defined business plan is very argent for a smart and a commercial farmer to become successful in a farming business.
2. Site Selection
In general, mushrooms grow in the cool, wettish areas of the forestland where they’re harbored from the rainfall and wind, so it’s very easy to find a place like this in your house area.
Many people say to grow your mushrooms in the restroom as it’s an area that frequently has moisture from showers. While this can be good, tailwind is also important and small enclosed spaces can beget your mushrooms to suffer from a lack of oxygen.
But commercial mushrooms cultivation requires much you think in the case of site selection. A perfect environment is very important for mushrooms cultivation. The place should be far from residential areas and forests. You can choose a big house where light and air passing is very low.
Modern farming methods or farming technology may be used for commercial mushroom farming on a large scale. Even vertical farming technology is also used for this sector. Unlike any other agro-farming system you have to be more careful about mushrooms farming.
3. Preparing Spawn Or Mushroom Seed
Mushroom seeds are produced in the laboratory through tissue culture methods. Packaged seed is available in the market for purchase by the mushroom farmers which is known as commercial spawn.
However, farmers themselves may also produce spawn locally using the straw method. Mushroom farmers have to produce the spawn collecting mother spawn from the market in this case.
4. Preparing The Culture House
A sufficient number of windows should be kept in the mushroom culture room for air and oxygen movement. There should be shadowed light in the house.
The arrangement should be made so that the temperature of the culture house remains within the range of 20-30 Celsius. Mushroom favors higher relative atmospheric humidity. The relative humidity of the culture house should be in the range of 70-80%.
Enormous carbon dioxide is produced in the culture house due to respiration high population of microorganisms. The carbon dioxide gas is found to accumulate in the lower layer of the house as it is comparatively heavier. For this reason, the lower part of the thatch or wall should be kept open.
5. Collection Of Spawn
Spawn seed prepared in poly pack system should be collected from reliable farms after construction of the culture house. The main characteristics of a good spawn are that it will be white and the packet is uniformly and fully filled with fungal mycelium.
The arrangement should be made to cut the collected spawn packet as soon as possible. If there is any possibility of late cutting of packet then it should be removed from the sack and should be kept in a separate cool place of the house.
6. Cutting The Packet
The mushroom spawn packet should be soaked in water after cutting it incorrect method before setting it in the culture house. The cut should be made along the shoulder and include corners making size of 2 inches long and a 1-inch radius.
The white portion of both sides of the cut piece should be scratched with a blade. Then the packet should be soaked in water for 5-15 minutes. After soaking and draining out of the water the packet should be placed on the floor or racks in line with its culture.
The seed spawn should be placed at a distance Of 2 inches on the floor or racks in line. Water should be sprayed in the house 2-3 times in winter and 4-5 times hot seasons as per need to maintain the relative humidity 70-80% around the spawn packet.
Spraying should be done keeping the sprayer nozzle about one foot above the packet. The packet or sack may be moistened to control the humidity and temperature placing newspapers below and above the packet.
8. Other Cares
The germination mushroom seed will initiate producing pin-like embryos within 2-3 days if care is taken properly. The small embryos should be pruned keeping 8-12 big embryos at both sides. Mushroom maybe harvest within a period of 5-7 days.
The harvested mushroom should be kept at rest. The cut side of the mushroom again should be scratched with a blade the next day followed by spraying. Mushroom may be harvested 8-10 times from each packet. About 200- 250 grams of mushroom may be harvested from one packet.
9. Mushroom Harvest And Preservation
Mushrooms should be softly pulled by hand for harvest at the stage when becomes sufficiently large but the stalks and veins do not seem loose. The mushroom is to be marketed by putting it in polyethylene bags after cutting and grading.
The polyethylene bag should be made air-tight through proper sealing of the opening. This mushroom may be eaten for 2-3 days kept in a cool dry place. The mushroom was found to remain good 7-8 days in freeze.
10. Take A Note
Taking note of financial documents are helpful to become a successful farmer, and will always help you to get a serious decision on your further projects. Projects management and taking notes are indispensable things. Even an old saying is project management has double value if you take a note.