Tilapia fish farming business is one of the easiest fish farming business in modern time. It has also taken a crucial role within the commercial fish farming business. Most of the people like tilapia recipes like baked tilapia to eat and there is not any man who doesn’t like tilapia.
According to FAO, it is produced 1030.0(thousands tons) in 2018 which is the 14th largest by the amount in the world. Tilapia is a good fish for aquaculture. They are easily spawned and use a wide variety of natural foods as well as artificial feeds.
It can tolerate poor water quality, and grow rapidly at warm temperatures. These are mainly seafood dwelling shallow streams, ponds, rivers, and lakes, and fewer found in brackish water.
Advantages of Tilapia Farming
The weather and environment of our Asian countries are extremely favorable for the tilapia fish farming business. Because the tilapia is one of the very testy and fast-growing fish species in the world, and it’s an excellent demand for the fish farmer as well as consumers. It has made a revolution within the field of fish farming.
By tilapia fish farming business using modern ways, technology, and techniques, desired income are often made within a really short time. Tilapia fish farming is additionally an appropriate way of earning for the unemployed people.
On the other hand high rate and demand for tilapia in local and foreign markets, the farmers are being more curious about this fish farming. The efficiency of taking a natural feed, interests in supplementary feed, surviving in adverse natural condition and for disease resistance power of tilapia the recognition of it’s increasing to the farmer.
The demand for tilapia fish is increasing international day by day. This fish species can survive between 12 to 40 degree Centigrade temperatures and grows well in 16-35 degrees Centigrade temperature which is more favorable in the Indian sub-continent.
The most important thing is it is often produced twice a year. If modern farming methods and technology are often utilized in the tilapia fish farming business, then it might generate more income.
Considering the above points we always appreciate the tilapia fish farming business for those people who are beginners in this sector. Here we are trying farming methods, feed, breeding, and other management for the tilapia fish farming business.
1. Making a Business Plan
First, you need a well-defined tilapia fish farming business plan consisting of a business model, operation model, and financial projection.
A better business model for a tilapia fish farming business plan depends on many factors, which are mainly defined as the scope of the business model.
A perfect operation model of a tilapia fish farming business plan is designed to mainly indicates the available facility and how the facility will operate. The manpower needed for the farming operation.
A well-defined financial projection for a tilapia fish farming business plan means the full financial affirmations, as well as custom analytic thinking to further understand the risk as well as profit prospects.
2. Site Selection
After making a business plan you have to select a site for your farm where you will construct a pond for the tilapia fish farming business. In the case of site selection, 3 or 4 important things must be kept in mind.
The first one is the land has too far from the residential area but not so far. The amount of the land at least 1 acre and rectangular shaped.
Second, the site for the pond has to be noise-free and open land. The last one is the bank of the pond must be higher than plan land.
3. Pond Design and Construction
Pond design and construction both are very much important in the case of tilapia fish farming business. Generally, the shape of the earthen pond is rectangular and 2 to 4 feet deep is commonly accepted.
To construct a new pond you can use either manual labor or machine, but if you have already pond then you can use it as farming tilapia fish. You also construct the dike for the inlet and outlet system properly.
4. Pond Preparation
Pond preparation is another important issue for the tilapia fish farming business. Pond preparation is consisting of several steps. The first one is drying by sunlight after providing the lime in the pond. Second watering the pond properly, greening the pond.
Bush and the unnecessary thing must need to faraway from the pond, it’ll make sure the entrance and availability of sunlight inside the pond. You need to apply both organic and inorganic fertilizers to prepare the pond, side by side you can provide subsidiary feeds daily.
5. Seed Collection or Breeding
Better seed means better fish so think over by taking time to collect better seed for tilapia fish farming business commercially. You can collect better seeds from any of your nearest tilapia fish breeding centers or hatcheries. If you want you can run a mixed farm with tilapia and catfish fish farming, and this system is very popular in Nigeria.
If breed in your farm pond then you have to maintain several steps. The breeding process of tilapia fish isn’t so difficult and therefore the setup of the breeding process is extremely simple. For the breeding purpose, the brood-stocks are often placed during a small-sized tank or selected area of a pond and then transfer the fry to a bigger tank or pond for further farming.
It’s very difficult to spot male or female tilapia fish once they are very young. Which may be a very big problem for commercial tilapia fish farming? For this reason, the massive commercial tilapia producers use hormones or genetically chosen fish to supply only male tilapia for profitable farming.
6. Nursing Pond
The minnow of tilapia fish should be kept during a nursing pond after bringing them from tilapia hatchery. Before keeping the minnow to the pond you’ve got to make certain about the condition of the pond.
First of all, make the pond dry and apply rotenone medicine to get rid of unwanted and cannibalistic fish insects, and animals. Then, use 100 kg lime, 500-700 kg dung, 10-15 g nitrogen, 5-7 g TSP, and a couple of g MOP per acres. Keep a net around the pond to stop the fish from predators like frogs and snakes.
After 5-7 days of applying fertilizer, stock 21-28 day old minnow within the pond. Serve 10-15% feed to the fish consistent with the load of the minnow. After 40-60 days of caring and nursing move them to a different pond.
7. Providing Feed
Tilapia is usually an omnivorous fish species. They typically consume everything including algae and various sorts of aquatic plants. For little or large scale commercial tilapia fish farming the producers can use commercial tilapia fish feed which is available to the closest market.
Organic fish feeds also are available for tilapia fish and residential-made feed also can be used. Commercial feeds are very healthy and effective for the fish and it provides the very best growth.
8. Farm Management
Farm management is the most important step for the tilapia fish farming business commercially. It includes feed management, monitoring the farm carefully, water treatment, disease control, weight monitoring in a timely. All these are not as difficult as other carp fish farming but you have to do it properly.
Tilapia is more immune to viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases than other commonly cultured fish like Rui, Silver Carp, Grass Carp, Catla, and others Carp fishes especially at optimal temperatures for growth. In recent years the bacterial contagion Streptococcus inane has caused losses, mainly in recirculating and intensifier flow-through systems.
If you provide supplementary feed consistent with the demand for fish then there’s no necessity of providing the natural feed. When a load of fish is going to be quite 100 g, then it’ll be better if you modify the water of the pond at the speed of fifty daily. When the typical weight of tilapia would 300-500 g then it’ll be suitably purchasable.
In good growing conditions, 1-gram fish are cultured in nursery ponds to 1 to 2 ounces in 5 to 8 weeks and then stocked into grow-out ponds. In mono-sex grow-out ponds under favorable temperature regimens, males normally reach a weight of 1/2 pound in 3 to 4 months, 1 pound in 5 to 6 months, and 1.5 pounds in 8 to 9 months.
Nowadays the market of tilapia is speeding worldwide. After harvesting, you have to send it to the nearby market where demand and price both are in favor of you.
Our surroundings and weather are extremely suitable for tilapia fish farming. It takes low time in farming and provides an excellent income within a brief time. Because the demand and price are high therefore the farmers are getting more curious about tilapia fish farming.
Keeping a record is very much essential for farming or commercial activities. You have to keep the exact record perfectly. The records must be accountable, transparent, reliable, and relevant to evaluate the overall farm performance.
If you have a note it will be easy to find out the profit or loss in any project. This will also help you to find out the pitfall of the project and the possible solution to the problem.
Finally, we hope that all these steps are very much helpful for you to start a tilapia fish farming business commercially.