A fish is a scaly covered skin and it can swim in the water and breathes using gills. Most of the fish have a skeleton in the cupboard made from bone. The word fish comes from the old English word “fisc” which means, a vertebrate which has gills fins adapting it for living in the water. It provides nutrients and micronutrients that are essential to cognitive and physical development, especially in children, and are an important part of a healthy diet. In this article we shall discuss here about fish raising in Bangladesh in detail.
History of Fish Raising
Fish raising is included in the farming of aquatic organisms. About 500 BCE, the Romans farmed saltwater fish like oysters and some other specific fish in Mediterranean lagoons and freshwater aquaculture developed about 1000 years earlier in China. Farming carp in ponds and freshwater led to the complete domestication of this species in the Middle Ages in all over the world.
Fish farming involves mainly fish raising commercially in tanks or enclosures and it is usually for food. The facilities that release prom fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement a species natural numbers are generally referred to as a fish pond. The most important fish species are used in fish raising are carp, salmon, tilapia, and catfish worldwide. There is an increasing demand for fish and fish protein in the world, which has resulted in widespread overfishing in wild or natural resources fisheries.
Fish raising offers fish marketers another source. Even so, farming zoophagous fish, such as salmon, does not unremittingly reduce pressure on wild fisheries, since zoophagous farmed fish are commonly fed fishmeal and fish oil evoked from barbaric forage fish. The global returns for fish farming recorded by the FAO in 2008 totaled 33.8 million tons worth about $US 60 billion.
Advantages of Fish Raising Business
Everything has some advantages and disadvantages but in the case of agricultural production there are no disadvantages if there are any, it is very little. There are many advantages to starting a commercial fish raising business. Here we are describing some of the advantages of the fish raising business. It has been auspicated that the universal need for fish for human intake will enhance by more than 50% over the up-coming 15 years.
Bangladesh is a populated country it is about 170 million but total production is about 4134434 Metric Tons of fishes (BBS). So the demand for protein is also increasing highly day by day. As the demand, the commercial fish farming or fish raising business allows for large supplies of fish and to meet up extra demand of protein to the growing population.
At present days fish can be grown up in tanks and small ponds as required to production until they are ready for marketing, and it is required the extensive capture of wild fish and thus commercial fish raising may be helpful to preserve natural ecosystems and today biofloc fish farming system is getting popular which is also environment friendly.
One can start a fish raising business in either large or small scale production purposes; it depends on the business or investment in the farm. But for starting it should be small to gather knowledge on it. If one doesn’t have any knowledge about it, it is possible to take training on how to produce fish in a pond or tank.
If one doesn’t have enough money or capital to start this business properly, then he can apply for bank loans. Many banks will allow loans for starting this business commercially. Banks are very helpful in it; even it is declared that the government is increasing people to do something without a searching job.
Source of Protein
It is known to all that fish are very popular as a source of protein or food around the world. So there is an established fish market all around the world it may locally or internationally, so don’t have to worry about marketing your products.
Effective use of marginal land e.g. land that is too poor and there are some fellow lands around us so if we want to proper use of it fish cultivation is perfect. In intensive or extensive fish farming labor are required very low and economic inputs also required low. Natural food production plays a very important role in fertilizers may be used to increase fertility and thus fish production but it is very low in amount.
Source of Omega-3
Health authorities including WHO encourage to consume more fish, including the USDA’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans, because it’s a high-quality source of of protein that’s low in saturated fat. It has the added advantage of being especially high in omega-3 fatty acids, which promote heart health. So we can agree with the quatation “fish farming is generally “greener” than meat production.”
Local Fish Species Development
Fish raising helps to revive the populations of some local fish species, which are important for the respective places. The high demand for such fish species necessitates the need for breeding in fish farms to prevent their extinction, as fish is produced in a farm commercially.
Disadvantages of Fish Raising
In the case of agricultural production there are very few disadvantages if there is everything is right, but excessive use of antibiotics and pesticides may cause water pollution. Moreover the congestion of fish in one area may result in the death of some fish that’s may be helpful to create bacteria and even infection to the entire fishes in the pond or tank. But it will not be effective if we take care of it.
How to Start Fish Raising Business
As not like traditional fish production one should maintain some process as a profitable fish farming business. One has to go through some step by step process very carefully. These steps are starting with a suitable farmland or area selection, fish farm type (cage, tank or pond), cage or pond construction, so the place or farm should be suitable for selecting fish species, feeding, care and management, harvesting and marketing. We are concisely identifying all the measures below. For carrying a fruitful fish farming business, follow all direction step by step very cautiously.
Select a Suitable Farm Land or Area
Selecting suitable farmland or area is very important for starting a commercial fish Raising business. All the areas are not suitable for a profitable business. And some areas have plenty of natural resources, which are very effective for the fish raising business. Especially coastal areas and the areas near big rivers or streams are very suitable for establishing a farming business. Consider the following while selecting land or areas for your business.
Clearer Empty and Large Land
Firstly we should select relatively level clearer empty land, ensure that there are no big trees around it and sloped lands should be avoided totally. As a businessman, we should think for the future and make a proper future business plan, while selecting the land. It will be better if you can select a large piece of land but it should be remembered that large land has to be made into small land that is a small plot, where one can perform all types of necessary farm activities.
Avoid Low and Congested Area
Avoid flooding, polluted and congested areas because flooding area can harm your business seriously. Polluted and congested areas will hamper to grow up the fish. Don’t select fish farming land near the crop fields and poultry farm even dairy farm. Farmers usually use a lot of fertilizers and pesticides in their field for better output and consequences are well known to us.These chemicals get mixed with water and the polluted water can affect your fish farm.
It will be better, if one’s selected land becomes slightly lower than the main water source but the bank of the pond should be higher than the usual plane land. It will help to decrease the cost of filling your farmland with water. Natural gravity will fill the land without any cost but after filling with water bank will be made stronger because flood’s water may enter in the pond.
Ensure a good transportation system and infrastructural development, such as electricity supply, medicine, and agricultural adviser are available in your selected area. All these are very for marketing your products and gaining more profit.
Type of Your Pond
There are many types of fish farms in the intensive, semi-intensive and extensive fish farming system. One can start a fish farming business by choosing any type. Among these various systems you can choose a cage system, tank system or pond system. It is varied from place to place and country to country.
In Bangladesh and other South-Asian countries fish farming always important and production is very high. Here the cage system is very rear, but recently fish cultivation in the cage system is increasing gradually. In the cage system, make a suitable cage and place it in lakes, ponds, bayous or oceans and start feeding the fish until they reach the marketing age. Here we are describing more about fish farming in the pond system.
Pond Design and Construction
After selecting farmland one should construct a suitable pond as the design he or she makes. Before design the pond he or she has to ensure the viable facilities from the land and area of the farm that is getting water properly and sufficient when it is needed, getting sun-shine properly because sun-shine is important to produce fish, without proper sun-shine it impossible to grow-up fish properly. Although the design of a pond depends on the fish species you intend to raise and the location.
One can consult with your nearest fisheries institute to learn more about specific pond design for specific fish species. Always try to maintain a good environment in the pond. A good environment helps to live and grow the fish well, and it directly involved with better production and maximum profits.
Suitable Fish Species
The selection of suitable fish species is not less important for maximizing profits in the case of a fish raising business. Considering this case we should emphasize the demand in the local market and high price. On the other hand, the thing we have to keep in mind the high growing breeds which will be helpful to grow fish very fast.
The most important fish species used in fish farming throughout the world are carp, salmon, tilapia and catfish. All of these fish species have many varieties and suitable for farming in all types of agro-climatic conditions and eco-friendly. Select the fish species for farming, depending on your local facilities, demand, price and low maintenance cost.
If you have a pond, at the same time it can be a blessing as well as a curse. However, if you have fish in the pond and it is a business purpose then you have to do something with them to keep the fish alive. So feed them properly and timely. Then you will want to make sure they get bigger and faster.
Some of the fish that you get will only want to get the naturally grows in a pond. You have ensured that natural food is available in the pond. How much food they needed depends on the size of the pond, the number of fish and the presence of an aeration system are all factors that determine how much your fish need to be fed. If you want high-quality fish and grow them faster then always try to provide your fish high quality and nutritious food.
High-quality food not only ensures maximum production but also helps to keep the fish healthy. You can purchase those fish feed from the local market or prepare it by your own side by side learn more about how to prepare supplementary fish feed if you want to prepare it on your own. Don’t forget to add all types of necessary nutrient elements, such as vitamins, minerals, salt, etc.
Care and Management
Proper management consists of monitoring fish ponds timely, keping records and make a plan for the operation of farm.On this basis, you can for example decide when to fertilize your ponds and how much to feed your fish. You can also decide how well supplementary feeds are being utilized and how fast your fish are growing, and you can plan the stocking, transfer and harvesting of your fish.
Monitor the health of your fish regular basis. Above all, you have to be substantially informed on how much you expend for or benefit from fish farming. You should do aquatic weed control and remove unwanted and overpopulated fish. As a commercial fish producer, you have to monitor your fish pond very closely. For this you have first to learn about the parameters which are commonly used to measure and compare the performances of various stocks in fish farms such as their growth, production and survival.
Keeping accurate records of numbers and sizes of fish caught in the pond that will help you to evaluate the status of your fish populations and if there is any additional management is needed. Fishing may be the best way to find out how well your pond is doing. By catching fish in your pond you can check how well your fish are growing, reproducing, and if there are any unwanted fish or animals in the pond you have to remove it immediately. Test the water and soil quality of your pond regularly. Always stock some necessary drugs on your farm. Prevent all cases of predators fish, frogs, snakes also.
After a certain time, the fish become at the age for harvesting. The time depends on the fish species and the price of a particular fish. Start harvesting, when major numbers of fish reach the marketing age. Fish can be reaped in many ways in farm, either from a pond filled with water, or drained, according to your needs and circumstances.
Harvesting from drainable ponds is comparatively easy, if there is a harvesting sump or similar any other device. Harvesting from undrainable fresh-water ponds required pumping to drain. For economic reasons they are drained only very occasionally. In such cases, and when multiple harvesting and stocking are practiced, it is necessary to resort to fishing with commercial fishing gear. The most usual fishing instrumentation for pond farms is a seine net. It is well suited for harvesting most species of fish, although some species like tilapia.
Try to harvest during morning or afternoon, whenthe temperature is low. After harvesting, send the fish to the nearest and most demand market as soon as possible.
Generally it is said that marketing is the easiest step of fish farming business but marketing properly of anything is so easy if you want to make maximum profit. There may numerous markets useable where you can trade your products but you have to find out the high call for and high pricing market.
There are numbers of fish-marketing channels primary markets, all local market is included in it, Secondary markets are considered as agents for wholesalers. Higher secondary markets include the city or district level market and City or terminal markets refer to a big city like the divisional market or capital of the county.
You may find out many companies available who export fish to foreign countries. So take a decision after harvesting, you can easily sell the fish at any of your nearest local markets. So don’t worry about marketing the products, just focus on the other steps.