Now many people want to start vannamei shrimp cultivation instead of conventional shrimp cultivation but thing is that they are still needed to figure out where to start. It is because commercial shrimp cultivation cannot be arbitrary. There are many preparations and things, particularly a well-defined business plan that you must consider before starting it.
As we know vannamei shrimp is a fishery commodity that has high economic value in the world fish market. Since it was first introduced to Indonesia, vannamei shrimp has become a prima donna among commercial fish farmers. No other shrimps have excellent resistance to the environment and quick adaptability like vannamei. Only not like that, market demand for vannamei shrimp also continues to increase. The economic importance of aquaculture has become the next level.
Amazingly, many people are interested in starting vannamei shrimp cultivation commercially. But this salt-water fish species is not farmed in traditional farming systems. So this article is for those who want to begin vannamei shrimp farming.
1. A Perfect Business Plan
A perfect business plan is unquestionably an important step for commercial vannamei shrimp cultivation. A perfect business plan consisting of a business model, operational model, and financial projection is the first step to being successful in any commercial activity.
Vannamei shrimp cultivation is not as like as freshwater fish farming, so you need to learn the total farming procedure step by step. You are also required to know the target market and potential market demand both local and international.
2. Pond Preparation
After selecting a farm site you must prepare a pond. In vannamei shrimp cultivation, the first and very important thing you have to do is the preparation of the pond to form an ecosystem (natural or artificial) conducive to the maintenance of shrimp during one cultivation cycle. During pond preparation, there are several things you must ensure: first, the pond must be clean, dry, and not leaking.
Second, adjustment of aeration and turbulence needs with an estimated production, actual targets, configurations, availability of energy, and cultivation systems. Finally, you have to ensure ponds are free from potential remnants of microorganisms that can harm aquaculture activities, such as bacteria, viruses, etc.
3. Farm Equipment Preparation
Every pond must have its modern equipment, but in some cases, it may be used differently from other ponds. As a commercial business farm farming equipment must be updated. Tools needed in the field, such as siphon hoses, Secchi disks, scoops, wall mounts, buckets, and water samplers, and laboratory equipment, such as water quality checkers, pH meters, and DO meters.
Therefore, the farmers must properly prepare every tool they needed. Finally, you have to ensure all the equipment is complete and ready to use before the production cycle begins.
4. Human Resources Preparation
To run a successful commercial farm only pond preparation and modern equipment are not enough, efficient, skilled, and well-trained human resources must be needed who will continue the production cycle of vannamei shrimp cultivation.
Expert and efficient workers can play a vital role to run commercial farms effectively and efficiently. You must make sure the number of human resources, expertise, and division of tasks for each person is carried out effectively and efficiently. Good human resource preparation will result in neat pond data recording and more success for commercial vannamei cultivation.
5. Pond Sterilization
Pond sterilization is another significant stage, which forms the essential ecosystem where the shrimp will grow and develop. Pond sterilization is the process of eliminating or reducing the presence of fish and other aquatic organisms in a pond. This is usually done in order to reduce the risk of disease transmission, introduce new species of fish, or improve the overall health of the pond.
There are a variety of methods for pond sterilization, including chemical treatments, physical barriers, and biological controls. Chemical treatments are the most popular method for pond sterilization. These treatments typically involve the application of algaecides and herbicides to kill off existing algae and aquatic weed species, as well as bacteria and other microorganisms.
Algae and weeds can cause a variety of issues in ponds, including poor water clarity, oxygen depletion, and excessive nutrient loading. By eliminating these species, the water quality and clarity of the pond can be improved, resulting in healthier fish and aquatic life. Physical barriers are also used to protect ponds from unwanted aquatic organisms.
6. Microorganism Spreading
The spread of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites can cause diseases in shrimp, leading to high mortality rates and reduced crop yields. By controlling the spread of these microorganisms, the risk of disease outbreaks is minimized, resulting in healthier and more productive shrimp populations.
Microorganisms play a crucial role in maintaining water quality in shrimp ponds. They help break down organic matter, reduce the level of harmful chemicals, and increase the level of dissolved oxygen, all of which are essential for the survival and growth of shrimp.
The presence of beneficial bacteria in shrimp ponds is important for maintaining a balanced microbial population. These bacteria help control the growth of harmful microorganisms and promote the overall health of the shrimp.
In conclusion, controlling the spread of microorganisms is crucial for the successful cultivation of vannamei shrimp. By maintaining a healthy microbial balance and reducing the risk of disease outbreaks, shrimp farmers can maximize crop yields and profitability.
7. Selection and Stocking of Seeds
For vannamei shrimp cultivation, specific types of fry are required. The ideal type of fry is post-larvae or specific pathogen-free fry. Post-larvae fry is typically sourced from hatcheries and is at the post-larval stage of development, which means they have completed the metamorphosis from larvae to juvenile shrimp. These fries are more resistant to diseases and are easier to handle compared to earlier developmental stages.
Specific pathogen-free fry, on the other hand, is fry that has been screened for specific pathogens that can cause diseases in shrimp. These fries are considered the most disease-free and have the highest survival rate, making them the ideal choice for vannamei shrimp cultivation.
Finally, the ideal fry must be disease-free and disease resistant. In addition, several other criteria must be met, including body length > 10 mm, size variation < 1, intense color pigment, and act. Post larvae fry or specific pathogen-free fry are the ideal type of fry required for vannamei shrimp cultivation, as they offer higher survival rates, better resistance to diseases, and improved growth potential.
8. Feeding Management
Vannamei shrimp is one of the most popular species for aquaculture and their feeding management is a critical aspect of their successful cultivation. Some general guidelines for feeding vannamei shrimp include:
Providing a balanced and nutritionally complete diet to meet their nutritional requirements are first priority. Feeding multiple times a day, using appropriate feeding rates based on water temperature, feeding behavior, and growth stage of the shrimp.
Monitoring feed intake and adjusting feeding rates accordingly to avoid overfeeding and reduce waste. You have to gradually adjust the diet as the shrimp grows to ensure optimal nutrition and growth.
Avoiding feeding during periods of low water oxygen levels or high water temperature, as this can negatively impact the health of the shrimp. You must be supplementing the diet with vitamins and minerals as necessary to meet specific nutritional requirements.
It’s important to work with a professional aquaculture specialist to develop a customized feeding plan that meets the specific needs of your vannamei shrimp farm.
9. Water Quality Management
Water quality management is a critical aspect of vannamei shrimp cultivation. Some guidelines for maintaining good water quality include:
You must regularly monitor water parameters such as pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and nitrogenous waste levels. Maintaining optimal water temperature, salinity, and pH levels within the range suitable for vannamei shrimp, which is typically around 25-30°C, 20-30 ppt, and 7.0-8.5, respectively and water must be replaced every 60 days.
Providing adequate aeration and water exchange to maintain high dissolved oxygen levels, which is essential for the survival and growth of shrimp. Reduce the buildup of organic matter and nitrogenous waste by regularly removing uneaten feed and other organic material, as well as using biofilters or other methods to promote aerobic degradation.
Avoid the use of chemicals and other pollutants that can harm the shrimp or disrupt the water quality. Monitoring for and treating water-borne diseases as necessary to maintain a healthy shrimp population.
Implementing a regular water quality management plan and making adjustments as necessary to ensure the best conditions for vannamei shrimp growth and survival. It’s important to work with a professional aquaculture specialist to develop a water quality management plan that meets the specific needs of your vannamei shrimp farm.
10. Shrimp Treatment and Sampling
Treatment is an important aspect of vannamei shrimp cultivation, as it helps to prevent and control diseases, parasites, and other health problems that can negatively impact the shrimp population. Some common treatments for vannamei shrimp include:
Chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, and formaldehyde can be used to treat various water-borne diseases and parasites. Probiotics, such as bacteria and yeast, can be added to the water to improve water quality and boost the immunity of the shrimp. Antibiotics can be used to treat bacterial infections, although their use should be carefully controlled and monitored to minimize the risk of resistance development.
Herbicides and pesticide treatments can be used to control aquatic weeds and pests that can impact the water quality and harm the shrimp. Quarantine and isolation must new shrimp stock should be quarantined and monitored for any signs of disease before being introduced into the main culture system.
It’s important to follow good aquaculture practices, such as maintaining good water quality and providing a balanced diet, to minimize the need for treatments and to promote the overall health and productivity of your vannamei shrimp farm. When treatments are necessary, it’s important to work with a professional aquaculture specialist to ensure that they are safe, effective, and environmentally responsible.
Regular sampling helps to determine the condition and development of shrimp during cultivation. Sampling is executed within a certain period to find out average body weight, growth, estimated population, survival rate, biomass, and to observe the quality of the shrimp.
Harvesting is the last stage of vannamei shrimp cultivation. This stage is divided mainly into four, the overall harvest, partial harvest, abnormal harvest, and emergency harvest. Actually, when the average weight reaches more than 14 grams you need to harvest properly. The harvesting technique for vannamei shrimp depends on the type of aquaculture system being used. In general, there are two main methods for harvesting vannamei shrimp:
Drain and harvesting, in his method, involves draining the water from the pond and physically removing the shrimp from the pond bed. The shrimp are then sorted and packaged for transport.
The pump and harvesting method involves using a pump to transfer the water, and therefore the shrimp, from the pond to a holding tank. The water is then drained from the holding tank and the shrimp are sorted and packaged for transport.
Regardless of the harvesting technique used, it is important to handle the shrimp properly to maintain their quality and ensure they are safe for consumption. This typically involves grading the shrimp according to size and quality and properly storing them at the correct temperature.
We have tried to describe fully from pond preparation to harvesting for commercial vennamei shrimp cultivation. But thing is that these are not all, in some particular cases the situations like the place, weather, and water quality may be different. You may contact us if need further information. Best wishes….